Research highlights the serious health implications of juvenile-onset type 2 diabetes

Men and women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) aged 40 or younger are much more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) and die prematurely than those under 40 in the general population. according to new research that will be presented this year Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Stockholm, Sweden (19-23 September).

The national study comparing over 634,000 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes people with over 1.2 million matched controls over an average of 6 years indicates that individuals with early-onset diabetes (aged 40 years or younger ) were five times more likely to develop heart disease, seven times more likely to be hospitalized for heart failure, and at least five times more likely to die from CVD or any cause compared to their counterparts without diabetes.

Our findings clearly highlight the serious health implications of developing type 2 diabetes at a young age and the importance of efforts to prevent diabetes early in life. “

Dr Da Hea Seo, lead author, Inha University School of Medicine, South Korea

T2D is the most common form of diabetes and usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. However, onset in young adults is becoming more common globally and is typically a more aggressive form leading to early development of complications and higher hospitalization rates. Because cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death, it is important to ascertain its burden in people with early-onset type 2 diabetes and to assess the age at which the risk of cardiovascular disease begins to increase.

To learn more, the researchers studied the relationship between age at diagnosis with complications of T2D and CVD and death in 634,350 individuals with T2D (mean age at diagnosis 56 years) from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. between 2012 and 2014, comparing to 1,268,700 controls matched for sex, age and CVD history from the general population. In South Korea, NHIS provides mandatory health insurance that covers almost all forms of health care for all Korean citizens.

Participants were followed up for CVD outcomes (death from any cause, death from CVD, coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure) or until 2019. The researchers adjusted for a range of factors that could affect the results. including age, gender and previous CVD history including heart attack, unstable angina, heart failure, stroke and peripheral artery disease.

In an average of 6 years of follow-up, 172,120 (40%) of people with early-onset T2D and 151,363 (23%) controls had a heart attack, stroke, or died from CVD.

The researchers found that the risk of cardiovascular complications was strongly age-related, and adults diagnosed with T2D aged 40 years or younger had the highest relative risk for most complications compared to the general population.

All risks declined progressively with each decade increasing at the age of diabetes diagnosis, but remained statistically significant. For example, individuals diagnosed with T2D at the age of 91 or older were approximately three times more likely to develop heart disease and be hospitalized for heart failure than those of the same age group in the general population and had the 24% more likely to die from any cause and 25% more likely to die from CVD.

“In this large population-based cohort study, being younger at the time of T2D diagnosis was associated with a higher relative risk of death and complications from cardiovascular disease than those in the same group without diabetes,” says co-author Dr Seong. Bin Hong of Inha University School of Medicine, South Korea. “The care of young people with diabetes, which has traditionally focused on type 1 diabetes, should place more emphasis on type 2 diabetes. In addition, effective health policies in this area screening, early diagnosis and treatment will help combat the future increase in cardiovascular disease in this increasingly common juvenile-onset and high-risk population. “

The authors point out that although their study was large, observational, they cannot rule out the possibility that other unmeasured factors and uncontrolled confounding factors may have influenced the results. They also note that the study is limited by a relatively short follow-up and its use of a dataset from South Korea, limiting generalizability to other populations.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.